The Darkening Web

Author: Alexander Klimburg
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9780698402768
Size: 11.46 MB
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"A chilling but well-informed and readable tour of cyber interdependence. Anyone interested in our growing global vulnerabilities should read this book.” —Joseph S. Nye, Jr., author of The Future of Power No single invention of the last half century has changed the way we live now as much as the Internet. Alexander Klimburg was a member of the generation for whom it was a utopian ideal turned reality: a place where ideas, information, and knowledge could be shared and new freedoms found and enjoyed. Two decades later, the future isn’t so bright any more: increasingly, the Internet is used as a weapon and a means of domination by states eager to exploit or curtail global connectivity in order to further their national interests. Klimburg is a leading voice in the conversation on the implications of this dangerous shift, and in The Darkening Web, he explains why we underestimate the consequences of states’ ambitions to project power in cyberspace at our peril: Not only have hacking and cyber operations fundamentally changed the nature of political conflict—ensnaring states in a struggle to maintain a precarious peace that could rapidly collapse into all-out war—but the rise of covert influencing and information warfare has enabled these same global powers to create and disseminate their own distorted versions of reality in which anything is possible. At stake are not only our personal data or the electrical grid, but the Internet as we know it today—and with it the very existence of open and democratic societies. Blending anecdote with argument, Klimburg brings us face-to-face with the range of threats the struggle for cyberspace presents, from an apocalyptic scenario of debilitated civilian infrastructure to a 1984-like erosion of privacy and freedom of expression. Focusing on different approaches to cyber-conflict in the US, Russia and China, he reveals the extent to which the battle for control of the Internet is as complex and perilous as the one surrounding nuclear weapons during the Cold War—and quite possibly as dangerous for humanity as a whole. Authoritative, thought-provoking, and compellingly argued, The Darkening Web makes clear that the debate about the different aspirations for cyberspace is nothing short of a war over our global values.

The Army Modernization Imperative

Author: Andrew Hunter
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9781442280168
Size: 13.43 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The U.S. Army currently faces a difficult truth: without changes to its modernization strategy, the Army risks losing qualitative tactical overmatch. A lost procurement decade and recent, significant modernization funding declines have resulted in an Army inventory that remains heavily leveraged on the “Big Five” programs, originally procured in the 1970s and 1980s. Meanwhile, technology proliferation has made potential state and nonstate adversaries increasingly capable; shrinking the U.S. overmatch advantage and in some cases surpassing it. While current and projected future Army modernization funding is below historical averages, necessitating increased modernization funding to ensure continued U.S. qualitative tactical overmatch, the Army’s modernization problem cannot be fixed only by increasing modernization funding. Additional funds also need to be accompanied by an updated Army modernization strategy that presents a compelling case for modernization funding and sets clear priorities for fulfilling future operational requirements.

The International Politics Of The Armenian Azerbaijani Conflict

Author: Svante E. Cornell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781137600066
Size: 12.89 MB
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This book frames the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh in the context of European and international security. It is the first book to focus on the politics of the conflict rather than the dispute itself. Since their emergence twenty years ago, this and other “frozen conflicts” of Eurasia have been affected by transformations in European security, and many ways absorbed into an ever fiercer geopolitical struggle for influence. The wars in Georgia and Ukraine brought greater attention to some unresolved conflicts, but not to the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. As the contributors to this volume argue, the conflict merits much greater European attention, for several reasons: it is on a path of escalation, existing mediation regimes are dysfunctional, and as both Georgia and Ukraine have showed, any outbreak of serious fighting will force the EU to respond. This book thus explains the interlocking interests of Russia, Turkey, Iran, the EU and United States in the conflict, and analyzes the negotiation process and the conflict’s international legal aspects.

Netherlands Annual Review Of Military Studies 2017

Author: Paul A.L. Ducheine
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789462651890
Size: 17.37 MB
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International conflict resolution increasingly involves the use of non-military powerand non-kinetic capabilities alongside military capabilities in the face of hybrid threats.In this book, counter-measures to those threats are addressed by academics with bothpractical and theoretical experience and knowledge, providing strategic and operationalinsights into non-kinetic conflict resolution and on the use of power to influence, affect,deter or coerce states and non-state actors. This volume in the NL ARMS series deals with the non-kinetic capabilities to addressinternational crises and conflicts and as always views matters from a global perspective.Included are chapters on the promise, practice and challenges of non-kinetic instrumentsof power, the instrumentality of soft power, information as a power instrumentand manoeuvring in the information environment, Russia's use of deception andmisinformation in conflict, applying counter-marketing techniques to fight ISIL, usingstatistics to profile terrorists, and employing tools such as Actor and Audience Analysis.Such diverse subjects as lawfare, the Law of Armed Conflict rules for non-kinetic cyberattacks, navigation warfare, GPS-spoofing, maritime interception operations, andfinally, as a prerequisite, innovative ways for intelligence collection in UN Peacekeepingin Mali come up for discussion. The book will provide both professionals such as (foreign) policy makers and thoseactive in the military services, academics at a master level and those with an interestin military law and the law of armed conflict with useful and up-to-date insights intothe wide range of subjects that are contained within it. Paul A.L. Ducheine and Frans P.B. Osinga are General Officers and full professors at theFaculty of Military Sciences of the Netherlands Defence Academy in Breda, The Netherlands.

Hybrid Warfare

Author: Williamson Murray
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107026087
Size: 18.85 MB
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Hybrid warfare has been an integral part of the historical landscape since the ancient world, but only recently have analysts - incorrectly - categorised these conflicts as unique. Great powers throughout history have confronted opponents who used a combination of regular and irregular forces to negate the advantage of the great powers' superior conventional military strength. As this study shows, hybrid wars are labour-intensive and long-term affairs; they are difficult struggles that defy the domestic logic of opinion polls and election cycles. Hybrid wars are also the most likely conflicts of the twenty-first century, as competitors use hybrid forces to wear down America's military capabilities in extended campaigns of exhaustion. Nine historical examples of hybrid warfare, from ancient Rome to the modern world, provide readers with context by clarifying the various aspects of conflicts and examining how great powers have dealt with them in the past.

Russia And The New World Disorder

Author: Bobo Lo
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815725572
Size: 16.87 MB
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The Russian annexation of Crimea was one of the great strategic shocks of the past twenty-five years. For many in the West, Moscow's actions in early 2014 marked the end of illusions about cooperation, and the return to geopolitical and ideological confrontation. Russia, for so long a peripheral presence, had become the central actor in a new global drama. In this groundbreaking book, renowned scholar Bobo Lo analyzes the broader context of the crisis by examining the interplay between Russian foreign policy and an increasingly anarchic international environment. He argues that Moscow's approach to regional and global affairs reflects the tension between two very different worlds—the perceptual and the actual. The Kremlin highlights the decline of the West, a resurgent Russia, and the emergence of a new multipolar order. But this idealized view is contradicted by a world disorder that challenges core assumptions about the dominance of great powers and the utility of military might. Its lesson is that only those states that embrace change will prosper in the twenty-first century. A Russia able to redefine itself as a modern power would exert a critical influence in many areas of international politics. But a Russia that rests on an outdated sense of entitlement may end up instead as one of the principal casualties of global transformation.